How to choose woodworking tools in furniture production?

 Panel furniture production includes cutting, milling, edge sealing, hole rowing, assembly and packaging. Panel furniture usually uses particleboard or MDF as the base material, supplemented by melamine veneer. Furniture factories generally use push table saws, reciprocating saws and electronic sizing saws. Choosing the right saw blade is an effective way to ensure cutting quality, improve production efficiency and reduce costs.In the cutting process, cutting saw blades are divided into carbide saw blades and diamond saw blades.

(1) Carbide saw blades are used by most furniture factories because of their low price, repeated sharpening and better cutting quality. But the carbide saw blade has its obvious defects - easy to wear and need to be replaced frequently, which makes the production efficiency low.
(2) For diamond cutting tools, it has extremely high hardness and wear resistance, and the friction coefficient is lower than that of other materials. It has high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion coefficient, and the blade is very sharp. Chips are extremely thin. However, due to the particularity of the material, the diamond tool has low impact toughness and poor thermal stability, and the high-speed impact of impurities (iron nails, stones, etc.) in the cutting material will cause tooth chipping. But in general, the comprehensive utility and cost performance of diamond tools are more in line with the choice of furniture manufacturers.

In addition, the sizing saw usually has two saw shafts with two circular saw blades. The front is a scribing saw blade, which adopts down milling, and the main saw blade is followed by up milling.
(1) The width of the sawing path depends on the width of the sawing path of the circular saw blade. Usually, the cutting depth of the scribe saw is 1.5-3mm, and the actual cutting width of the scribe saw is slightly larger than that of the main saw blade. The main saw blade generally adopts the tooth shape such as ladder flat (FZ, TR), left and right teeth (WZ), ladder ladder (TR). (2) Among the sawing materials, when a, high-density medium fiberboard, particleboard plain board and melamine-impregnated paper veneer board, in order to ensure that the fiber is cut and the edge is not chipped, it is necessary to use a circular saw blade with left and right teeth (WZ). ;b. When sawing melamine boards with medium and high density fiberboard and particleboard as the base material, because of their relatively high glue content and hardness, it is necessary to choose a flat tooth type (FZ, TR) that can ensure good cutting quality and wear resistance. Circular saw blade; c. Ladder tooth (TR) type circular saw blade should be used when sawing cement particleboard and quartz plate with harder material. (3) The sawing height is determined according to the outer diameter of the circular saw blade and the object to be sawed. The working speed of the circular saw blade depends on the outer diameter. When in use, the saw blade should run smoothly, cut evenly, and the feed amount per tooth is equal. When sawing veneer wood melamine board, the general feed amount per tooth is 0.1mm-0.15m.
Next, let's talk about fine cutting and milling. At this stage, we use the hanging gong machine to perform non-straight edge special-shaped or fine cutting processing on the plate. The trimmer used on the hanging gong machine is different according to the milling type and the diameter of the shank. And the corresponding choice.
(1) There are usually five optional trimming knives, namely high-speed steel, solid carbide, replaceable blade carbide, coating and diamond tools.
(2) The application range and usage requirements of high-speed steel end mills are relatively wide, and a slight inappropriate selection of cutting conditions will not cause too many problems, but the machining accuracy is not high, and the speed and feed are small.
(3) Solid carbide cutting tools are the most used in the market. They are most widely used because of their low price and many specifications and shapes, but their most obvious disadvantage is that they consume a lot of money, and the cost for mass production of furniture factories is too high. The cutting conditions of the carbide saw must strictly meet the requirements of the tool, and the requirements for the scope of use are strict.
(4) Cemented carbide knives with replaceable blades only need to sharpen the blades or replace the blades, which can effectively reduce the cost. The disadvantage is that the one-time investment is larger than that of the solid carbide, and the high precision is required for the cutter body. Sex makes its market very limited. (5) The coated tool is a wear-resistant metal compound sprayed on the surface of the alloy or high-speed steel tool body, but its high price affects its promotion.
(6) Diamond tools are the most suitable for large-scale production enterprises, which can greatly improve production efficiency and reduce overall costs, and at the same time can obtain perfect processing quality. Due to the limitation of materials, the price of diamond tools is much higher than that of alloy tools, so As a result, the use of such tools in furniture factories is relatively limited. In the long run, diamond tools should have a good space for development.
In terms of edge banding process, the quality of panel furniture edge banding is an important indicator to measure the quality of furniture products, and a reasonable tool configuration on the edge banding machine is very important.
(1) The basic knives equipped with general edge banding machines include pre-cutting knives, cutting saws, rough trimming knives, finishing knives, tracking knives and scrapers. Different knives may be configured according to the actual production conditions of the furniture factory.
(2) The use of tools on the edge banding machine should be matched with the processed plates. There are usually three options: solid carbide tools, replaceable blade carbide tools and diamond tools. (3) The selection of rough trimming and finishing knives should be adjusted according to the thickness of the edge banding, but in practice many furniture factories use the same R1.5 trimming knife to process edge banding with different thicknesses of 0.8-2.0 This will cause cutting to the edge of the board or the edge banding, and a lot of manual repair work is required, which will seriously affect the quality of the edge banding. In terms of the emptying process, the drilling process is mostly used, and the solid carbide drill is basically used. The selection of the drill mainly considers the machining accuracy and technical parameters.
The working part of the tool in furniture production is the part that generates and handles chips, including the cutting edge, the structure that makes the chips short and broken or rolled up, and the space for chip removal or storage. (1) The geometric parameters of the cutting part of the tool have a great influence on the cutting efficiency and the processing quality. Increasing the rake angle can reduce the plastic deformation when the rake face squeezes the cutting layer and reduce the frictional resistance of the chips flowing through the front. Increasing the rake angle reduces the strength of the chip edge and reduces the heat dissipation area of ​​the cutter head.
(2) When choosing the angle of the tool, it is necessary to consider the influence of various factors, such as workpiece material, tool material, processing properties (rough, finishing), etc., and should be reasonably selected according to the actual situation. Generally speaking, the tool angle refers to the marked angle of manufacture and measurement.
(3) The material for making the tool must have high high temperature hardness and wear resistance, the necessary bending strength, impact toughness and chemical inertness, and good manufacturability (chip processing, forging and heat treatment, etc.) and not easy to deform. In a word, various furniture enterprises will use a large number of various woodworking knives in production. Reasonable selection of knives can improve product quality, give full play to the efficiency of equipment, and effectively reduce overall costs.

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